I. Filing Tricks and Traps
1. Fees and Classes. II. Prosecution
2. Filing Bases.
1. Technicalities. III. Enforcement
2. Substantive Refusals.
a. Failure to function as a mark.
b. Immoral or Scandalous Matter.
e. Confusion Refusals.
f. Descriptiveness Refusals.
g. Refusal based on Geographically Deceptive and Geographically Deceptively Misdescriptive Marks.
h. Surname Refusals.
3. Madrid Protocol Considerations/Extensions of Protection to the U.S.