Fact Sheet: Introduction to Trademarks
Updated: March 31, 2019
1. What is trademark strength, and why is it important?
The nature of a mark, particularly its relative strength or weakness, will have a direct bearing on its performance in the market and the scope of legal protection to which the mark is entitled. A mark that is highly distinctive functions as a strong mark, identifying the owner as the source of the covered products or services. When a mark is scarcely distinctive and/or it may already be used by others on or in connection with different products or services, the mark is considered weak. In general, the stronger a mark is, the easier it is for the mark to be registered and protected from unauthorized use by others.
2. How is a mark’s strength or weakness gauged?
The relative strength or weakness of a mark may be gauged by placing the mark on a spectrum, sometimes called a hierarchy of marks. The types of marks discussed below range from the strongest to the weakest.
- Fanciful or Coined Marks. A fanciful or coined mark is at the strongest end of the spectrum because it is inherently distinctive. Such a mark consists of a combination of letters that has no meaning; thus, it is an invented word. Examples are GOOGLE for online services, ROLEX for watches, and XEROX for copiers. Since a fanciful or coined mark has no inherent meaning, in the beginning a bigger effort in terms of advertising is necessary in order to educate the public as to the relationship between the invented word and the owner’s product or service. However, these marks enjoy the broadest scope of protection against third-party use.
- Arbitrary Marks. An arbitrary mark is composed of a word or words that have a common meaning in the language of the relevant jurisdiction; however, that meaning is unrelated to the goods or services for which the mark is used. Arbitrary marks, such as CAMEL for cigarettes and APPLE for computers, are considered highly distinctive in identifying and distinguishing products or services. As with fanciful or coined marks, the public must be educated as to the association of the arbitrary mark with the relevant product or service, but the scope of protection obtained is very broad.
- Suggestive Marks. A suggestive mark hints at or suggests the nature of a product or service or one of its attributes without actually describing the product or service. Examples of suggestive marks are AIRBUS for airplanes and NETFLIX for streaming services. Suggestive marks can possess an inherent element of sales appeal and will require less education of the public than coined or arbitrary marks; for this reason, generally, suggestive marks are entitled to less-extensive protection.
- Descriptive Marks. In general, a descriptive mark is a word (or words) that merely describes a product or that contains ingredients or attributes that are too weak to function as a trademark. An example of a merely descriptive mark would be COLD AND CREAMY for ice cream. Such a mark is very unlikely to be granted registration, as the phrase merely describes an attribute of the product. Words that merely describe an attribute, feature, end result, or use of the product, or the persons employed in its production, generally are not granted trademark protection. Merely laudatory terms such as “best” or “quality” also are generally not registrable. In some jurisdictions, surnames are treated as descriptive marks. What is initially a descriptive word may later become protectable as a trademark if it acquires secondary meaning. In other words, if a descriptive word is used and advertised exclusively as a trademark for a sufficient period of time, it may, in addition to having the primary meaning that is descriptive of the product, come to identify the mark as being associated with a single source of origin for that product. An example of a descriptive word that has acquired secondary meaning and become protectable as a trademark is SHARP for televisions.
- Generic Words. A generic word can be thought of as the common name of the product or service in question—for example, “clock” is a generic word for timepieces. Such words can never be appropriated by a single party as trademarks for the products or services they signify, since the public perceives and uses them solely as common nouns or terms. Generic words or phrases are not registrable or protectable in relation to the products or services they signify.
3. How do I select a unique and strong trademark?
Ideally, when choosing a new trademark, you will select a mark that is inherently distinctive. The strongest types of trademarks are (1) fanciful or coined marks, such as EXXON for petroleum products; and (2) arbitrary marks, such as AMAZON for retail services.
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